Timeline: The Nation

1860

4/3/1860 - Pony Express is initiated.
12/20/1860-South Carolina secedes from the Union.

1861

1/1861-Alabama, Florida, Georgia, Louisiana and Mississippi secede from the Union.
2/1861 - Texas secedes from the Union.
4/12/1861-Confederates fire on Fort Sumter, the first engagement of the Civil War.
5/1861-Arkansas, North Carolina, Tennessee, and Virginia secede from the Union.
10/24/1861 - Pony Express announces its closure as the transcontinental telegraph reaches Salt Lake City.

1862

9/17/1862 - Battle of Antietam (Sharpsburg), Maryland - McClellan forces Lee to fall back but doesn’t follow.
9/22/1862 - Emancipation Proclamation is issued effective January 1, 1863.
12/13/1862 - Battle of Fredricksburg.

1863

3/3/1863 - First Union conscription act.
3/15/1863 - Confederate privateer J. M. CHAPMAN is captured in San Francisco harbor.
8/17/1863 - Confederate raider CSS Shenandoah is launched, conducts raids along Pacific coast until August 1865, four months after end of Civil War.
7/1/1863-7/3/1863 - Battle of Gettysburg, Pennsylvania.
7/13/1863 - Draft riots in New York.
11/26/1863 - National Thanksgiving holiday is decreed by Lincoln on 10/3/1863.

1864

11/15/1864-12/21/1864 - Sherman’s march to the sea.

1865

4/9/1865 - Surrender of Lee to Grant at Appomatox Courthouse.
4/15/1865 - Lincoln is assassinated.

1866

1867

1868

1869

1/1/1869 - Louisa May Alcott delivered the second half of the manuscript for 'Little Women'.
5/10/1869 - Transcontinental railroad completed; trip east goes from six months to six days.
9/24/1869 - Black Friday financial panic caused by attempt to corner gold market on New York Gold Exchange.

1870


1871

10/8/1871 - Great Chicago Fire destroys 3.3 square miles of the city.
7/1871-10/1871 - Smallpox epidemics strike New York and Philadelphia; 11/1871 - Baltimore, MD.
1871 - New method of tanning buffalo hides developed by Wright Moar in New York precipitates mass slaughter of herds.

1872

10/1/1872 - Equine epidemic appears and spreads rapidly throughout the U.S. Because of the near-total dependence on horsepower to move commerce, as many as 20,000 businesses fail, a third of all railroads go bankrupt, and unemployment spikes to almost 15 percent.
11/9/1872 - Great Boston Fire, massive losses; firefighting efforts are paralyzed by equine epidemic.

1873

3/1/1873 - Remington began production of its first typewriter; it had a QWERTY keyboard layout.
2/12/1873 - Fourth Coinage Act demonetizes silver.
9/18/1873 - Failure of major banking house Jay Cooke & Company precipitates national depression.

1874

1875

1/8/1875 - Silver stock market collapses.
8/26/1875 - Bank of California shuts its doors due to bank run; reopens 10/2/1875.

1876